Home » Posts tagged 'People’s Representatives elections'
Tag Archives: People’s Representatives elections
Explaining China’s ‘People’s Congress’ Through the Tales of Three: A Hand-raising Automaton, An Independent Candidate, and An Electoral Activist
Teng Biao, March 12, 2019
As the Communist Party held this year’s “Two Sessions” (两会), Beijing activist Hu Jia (胡佳) was kept under control by being forcibly moved across the country to Guangdong. Human rights lawyer Tang Jitian (唐吉田) and Xu Zhiyong (许志永), of the New Citizens Movement, received midnight visits in Zhengzhou and were interrogated without explanation. The number of human rights defenders who are under house arrest or have been disappeared is in the thousands. The security departments at all levels are operating at full capacity on a nationwide scale with the capital at the center, consuming a great deal of manpower and financial resources as they use high-tech means to monitor every corner of society.
In its editorial Bring an Immediate End to the Human Rights Disaster of the Two Sessions (《立刻停止制造“两会”人权灾难》), Minsheng Watch (民生观察) wrote that “each March, the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) hold their so-called Two Sessions. On paper, the Sessions should represent public opinion, and use the insights gather from it to form national policies and regulations. In fact, the Two Sessions have become a tool for obstructing, suppressing, and banning popular will; they have become associated with the abduction, detention, house arrest, surveillance, harassment, and disappearance, of dissidents and human rights activists. The Two Sessions have become a total human rights disaster for the Chinese people.”
Which national parliament meeting needs the protection of over a million personnel from the military, police, public security, national security and civilian security personnel? Who holds a meeting with such trepidation, as if walking on thin ice, mobilizing so many public resources? This lays bare the truth that the NPC is a tool to isolate and oppose the people. Behind this, it reflects the two-track political calculus of the Chinese authorities: to flex its muscles in front of the people by making a show of force and privilege, and to try to cover up the Communist Party’s greatest anxieties.
In fact, even if the petitioners are able to stuff the petition materials into the hands of the people’s representatives, few of the representatives would so much as take a look. These NPC deputies are not elected by the people. According to China’s electoral system, these people were elected by “indirect elections”: at no juncture throughout all levels of the “people’s representatives,” from county to city, from city to province, and from province to the National People’s Congress, does the “indirect” have anything to do with the people who are supposedly being represented. It is, plain and simple, a power game. In the twenty-first century, Chinese citizens are unable to directly select their national leaders and legislators, and unable to directly elect provincial and municipal leaders and deputies to the People’s Congresses on these levels. They can’t even directly elect the heads of county and township.
While in theory county- and township-level People’s Congress representatives are directly elected, those elections are completely controlled by the Chinese Communist Party. Without multi-party competition, freedom of association, and freedom of the press, the election is doomed to be a farce. The majority of NPC deputies are from the Party, the government, the judiciary, and the military. They are legislator, executor, and judge all at once. There is no division of the three branches of power; the unity of party and state amounts to political incest.
On top of this are a small number of models workers, writers, academicians, celebrities, ethnic minorities, and the like, who are arranged to participate for the sake of political decoration. They have no task apart from stay in luxury hotels, give enthusiastic applause, and spew flattery.
The most amazing NPC deputy is an 89-year-old grandma named Shen Jilan (申纪兰). Starting when she was a girl of 18, she has been elected 13 times as an NPC deputy — the only person to hold this distinction. “She supported the Great Leap Forward, the People’s Commune, and the Cultural Revolution. She was in favor of struggling against Liu Shaoqi, and she agreed to fight Deng Xiaoping. Later, she agreed to denounce the Great Leap Forward and the People’s Commune, she agreed to the denunciation of the reforms, and she agreed to rehabilitating Liu and Deng.” She raised her hand in favor of all these contradictory positions, without fail, for decades.
Shen Jilan explained: “The representatives’ job is to listen to the Party, so I have never voted against it.” When a reporter asked her whether she would communicate with the voters during the election process, she said, “We are democratically elected, it’s inappropriate to have discussions with [voters.” This “hand-raising automaton” is a living, breathing specimen of Party spirit (党性). She claims to represent the peasantry, but she is actually a retired cadre at the prefecture level. Many of her family members are local officials. As an outstanding representative of the NPC, Shen Jilan presents, in concentrated form, the falsehood, absurdity, and ugliness of the legislature under the CCP.
In the election of deputies to the county-level People’s Congresses, the Communist Party guarantees the finalists of the audience through various nuanced means, by hook or crook. Candidates recognized by the Party can easily be elected without any need to promote and campaign. However, since the law does not prohibit citizens from independently participating in county-level people’s congress deputies, some brave citizens have tried to explore this approach, and in the case of a slightly liberal environment, some individuals can still be elected successfully. In the election of the (Beijing) Haidian District People’s Representatives in 1980, Fang Zhiyuan (房志远), Wang Juntao (王军涛), Hu Ping (胡平), and Zhang Wei (张炜) of the Peking University constituency successively posted election campaign declarations, organized voters’ meetings, debates, held opinion polls, and published “Electoral Shortwaves” and other neutral publications. In the end, Hu Ping was elected.
Since 1987, Yao Lifa (姚立法) of Hubei Province has written himself in as a candidate in the elections for the People’s Congress of Qianjiang City four times (湖北潜江). He was finally elected in 1998 and was the first People’s Representative to be elected in China after 1988. In 2003 and 2008, Xu Zhiyong (许志永), a lecturer at Peking University of Posts and Telecommunications, was twice elected as a representative of the Haidian District People’s Congress as an independent candidate. One of the aims of the Open Constitution Initiative (公盟) initiated by Xu Zhiyong and myself is to encourage and help citizens from all over the country to run as independent candidates at the grass roots in elections for local People’s Congresses. This has become an important part of the rights protection movement since 2003. The independent candidacy reached a zenith in the election at the end of 2011. Many laid-off workers, students, professors, journalists, lawyers and IT professionals, including well-known online writers such as Li Chengpeng (李承鹏) and Xia Shang (夏商), ran as independent candidates. In encouraging participation in the electoral process through online agitation and offline activism, they built up quite an impressive force.
However, many independent candidates have been harassed, threatened, monitored, and even brutally beaten during the electoral process. Dissident Zhao Changqing (赵常青) became a deputy candidate for the People’s Congress in Nanzheng County, Shaanxi Province in 1997 (陕西南郑县). However, he was sentenced to three years in prison for the crime of “crime of endangering national security” after he exposed illegal acts during the election. In Wuhan in 2006, democracy activist Sun Bu’er (孙不二) was followed, beaten, and forced to withdraw his candidacy during the election. He was later arrested and sentenced to six years in prison. The very few independent representatives who were successfully elected were quickly squeezed out after the authorities realized they were disobedient, or were easily taken out in the next election.
At this juncture, I can’t help but mention my good friend, human rights lawyer Tang Jingling (唐荆陵) who is still serving his prison sentence Guangzhou. In 2006, he launched the “Ballot Redemption Campaign” (赎回选票运动), a nonviolent non-cooperation movement that fought back against rigged elections and raised civic awareness. By publicly stating that they refused to vote, they made clear that they would not take part in or comply with the pseudo-elections that did not represent the people, and in this way hoped to awaken the voters’ awareness of their rights.
Hundreds of people responded to the campaign and publicly voiced their refusal to participate in the election. I am also one of them. I also wrote to support and promote this movement, analyzing its similarities and differences with civil disobedience. In 2014, Tang Jingling was arrested and later sentenced to five years in prison for “inciting subversion of state power” because of the “Ballot Redemption Campaign” and other pro-democracy and human rights activities. The independent participation of citizens in elections and the visible non-cooperation in the elections are different ways of revealing the fraudulent nature of Chinese elections in different directions.
Shen Jilan spent her life as a tool and accomplice to dictatorship, while it is those like Yao Lifa and the imprisoned Tang Jingling who truly represent the Chinese people’s bitter and courageous struggle for democracy.
Teng Biao is a Chinese human rights lawyer who now lives in New Jersey.
A Declaration by Yao Lifa and 57 Other Candidates for People’s Representative in Qianjiang City, Hubei Province
November 6, 2016
Mr. Yao Lifa (姚立法) has been an advocate of grassroots elections in China since 1998. – The Editors
We live on the lowest rung of society; we yearn for a brighter future.
We think that changing the status quo isn’t as arduous as some people make out — because we can vote.
We have the right to elect the electorate group leader and deputy group leader in our constituency,
We have the right to jointly nominate preliminary candidates for People’s Representative elections,
We have the right to be nominated as preliminary candidates for People’s Representative elections,
Our approval or disapproval of preliminary candidates is the basis on which the election committee decides the formal list of candidates for People’s Representative elections,
We have the right to meet and ask questions of these preliminary candidates,
We have the right to fill out the ballot according to our true personal intent,
We have the right, on election day, to oppose the candidates who have been officially nominated and to instead vote for the candidates of our own choice!
We have the right to boycott the candidates who are either rich or politically powerful, or who aren’t qualified to be People’s Representatives,
People’s Representatives at the county level and below are directly elected by us — which actually means that we are indirectly electing the county chief, the district chief, and the president of the court, among others.
We believe that the ballot is the origin of power and that we are masters of power and masters of the country.
If we give our vote to a wicked man, then it would be no surprise if the officials in government and judiciary committed wicked acts.
We can no longer play dumb, and pretend we don’t understand what is going on.
We’re now uplifting our own spirits, and getting clarity of mind.
We, who wish with all our hearts to wake up the true holders of power of this country, hereby sign a declaration to run as candidates for the office of People’s Representative — for the purpose of enlivening those who possess both virtue and talent, who wish to uphold the interests of the people, and who are capable of navigating the political world, to step forward in front of the people and allow themselves to be elected.
We, who wish with all our hearts to wake up the true holders of power of this country, hereby sign a declaration to run as candidates for the office of People’s Representative, so as to awaken other voters, to help the scales fall from their eyes, and to tell them that they should only vote according to their own true wishes, and give their vote to only those they know, understand, and trust will dare to truly represent them.
Candidates for People’s Representative in Qianjiang City county-level, or county and township-level elections, hereby sign their names as follows:
1、姚立法 Yao Lifa 18972198964
2、伍立娟 Wu Lijuan 13707227753
3、潘向荣 Pan Xiangrong 15826894661
4、黄行芝 Huang Xingzhi 13117123901
5、李万凤 Li Wanfeng 13235535449
6、陈 平 Chen Ping 13545969565
7、刘应安 Liu Ying’an 13307228233
8、郑康元 Zheng Kangyuan 18871545639
9、彭 峰 Peng Feng 17763002016
10、李银秀 Li Yinxiu 15307224834
11、谢光武 Xie Guangwu 13886956727
12、王荣州 Wang Rongzhou 18972192635
13、张玉还 Zhang Yuhai 15027298826
14、彭 平 Peng Ping 13886993522
15、彭其林 Peng Qilin 13477476246
16、王兰英 Wang Lanying 15926057377
17、彭其玉 Peng Qiyu 15007227885
18、杨汉珍 Yang Hanzhen 13545951139
19、王 敏 Wang Min 15629292880
20、程 伟 Cheng Wei 13697367565
21、杨 军 Yang Jun 13098347832
22、吴海啸 Wu Haixiao 18672688297
23、彭桃山 Peng Taoshan 17764122210
24、陈中进 Chen Zhongjin 13277451381
25、李金萍 Li Jinping 13277681278
26、曾祥军 Zeng Xiangjun 13047147834
27、彭宣明 Peng Xuanming 13733405538
28、彭红颜 Peng Hongyan 13407285151
29、朱文芳 Zhu Wenfang 13886957415
30、余后群 Yu Houqun 18986958435
31、邱永红 Qiu Yonghong 15671161887
32、谢书珍 Xie Shuzhen 15549091682
33、余士平 Yu Shiping 13647289355
34、彭武松 Peng Wusong 13872966565
35、李家林 Li Jialin 13380885590
36、曾令鑫 Zeng Lingxin 15586301051
37、余桃珍 Yu Taozhen 15871898973
38、汪 华 Wang Hua 13477421986
39、彭晓星 Peng Xiaoxing 13886964517
40、郑文华 Zheng Wenhua 13907224856
41、万小云 Wan Xiaoyun 15027298155
42、康姣英 Kang Jiaoying 13972619064
43、彭冬香 Peng Dongxiang 13545973116
44、丁元顺 Ding Yuanshun 13687239542
45、李翠莲 Li Cuilian 15027296876
46、王冬梅 Wang Dongmei 15826928270
47、孙 惠 Sun Hui 13368295239
48、杨春光 Yang Chunguang 13972924798
49、廖梅枝 Liao Meizhi 15827972048
50、毛大明 Mao Daming 15671196630
51、朱春风 Zhu Chunfeng 18995999430
52、杨文平 Yang Wenping 15727289188
53、翟前枝 Zhai Qianzhi 13094298755
54、嵇金涛 Ji Jintao 15572801432
55、陈代玉 Chen Daiyu 17092691730
56、徐金平 Xu Jinping 18972192378
57、张高兵 Zhang Gaobing 13872967108
58、张文芳 Zhang Wenfang 07286201460
November 1, 2016
Record Number of Beijing Residents Declare Their Independent Candidacy for Local People’s Congress Seats, China Change, October 22, 2016
Financial Times: Lone Beijing independent intimidated ahead of China elections, November 4, 2016